This study investigated the effects of lyophilized mare milk, human milk, and cow colostrum on both human lung cancer cell lines, called A549, and healthy lung cell lines, called MRC5. Mare milk, human milk, and cow colostrum varieties were applied to 6 replicates in both cell lines with lyophilized milk concentrations ranging from 50-3,200 ppm. The cell viability was monitored by optic microscopy and determined by the MTT test. ANOVA and Duncan's multiple range tests were used to analyze data. The results of this study indicated that the most effective milk type on reducing the A549 lung cancer cell line was human milk, followed by mare milk; however, cow colostrum showed little effect. It was observed that human milk and mare milk had anti-proliferative effects on lung cancer cell line at concentrations which were non-toxic to healthy lung cell line.
Lindsey A. Torre, Bray F, Siegel RL, Ferlay J, Lortet-Tieulent J, Jemal A (2015). Global cancer statistics 2012. CA Cancer J. Clin. 65: 87–108.
, I. Soerjomataram
, C. Mathers
, D.M. Parkin
, M. Piñeros
, A. Znaor
and F. Bray
Ferlay J, Colombet M, Soerjomataram I, Mathers C, Parkin DM, Piñeros M, Znaor A, Bray F (2019). Estimating the global cancer incidence and mortality in 2018: GLOBOCAN sources and methods. Int J Cancer. 144:1941–53.
, I. Soerjomataram
, C. Mathers
, D.M. Parkin
, M. Piñeros
, A. Znaor
and F. Bray
World Health Organization: Global Health Observatory. Geneva (2018); World Health Organization.
Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A (2019. Cancer statistics, 2019). CA Cancer J Clin. 69 (1):7-34.
Bray F, Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Siegel RL, Torre LA, Jemal A Global cancer statistics (2018). GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries. CA Cancer J Clin. 68:394–424.
Vincenzetti S, Amici A, Pucciarelli S, Vita A , Micozzi D, Carpi FM, Polzonetti V, Natalini P, and Polidori P (2012). A Proteomic Study on Donkey Milk, Biochem Anal Biochem. 1:2.
Tagliazucchi D, Shamsia S, Helal A and Conte A (2017). Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory peptides from goats' milk released by in vitro gastro-intestinal digestion. International Dairy Journal. 71: 6– 16.
Rafiq S, Huma N, Rakariyatham K, Hussain I, Gulzar N and Hayat I (2017). Anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of water-soluble peptide extracts of buffalo and cow milk Cheddar cheeses. International Journal of Dairy Technology. 70: 432–438.
Kim H, Ahn S, Jhoo JW and Kim GY (2018). Comparison of allergic parameters between whey protein concentrate and its hydrolysate in rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-2H3 cells. Korean Journal of Food Science. 38:780–793.
Gura T (2014). Nature’s first functional food. Science. 345: 747–749.
Løland BF, Baerug AB, Nylander G (2007). Human milk, immune responses and health effects. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 127: 2395-8.
Savino F, Bebetti S, Lignori SA, Sorrenti M, Cordero D, Montezemolo L (2013). Advances on human milk hormones and protection against obesity. Cell. Mol. Biol. 59: 89–98.
França-Botelho A, Ferreira MC, França JL, França EL, Honório-França AC (2012). Breastfeeding and its Relationship with Reduction of Breast Cancer. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev.13 (11): 5327-5332.
Uruakpa F, Ismond M, & Akobundu E (2002). Colostrum and its benefits: a review. Nutr. Res. 22: 755–767.
Wheeler TT, Hodgkinson AJ, Prosser CG & Davis SR (2007). Immune components of colostrum and milk—a historical perspective. J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia. 12: 237–247.
Zhang L Boeren S, Hageman JA, van Hooijdonk T, Vervoort J, Hettinga K (2015). Bovine milk proteome in the first 9 days: protein interactions in maturation of the immune and digestive system of the newborn. PLoS One. 10: e0116710.
Letchoumy PV, Mohan KV, Stegeman JJ, Gelboin HV, Hara Y, Nagini S (2008). In vitro antioxidative potential of lactoferrin and black tea polyphenols and protective effects in vivo on carcinogen activation, DNA damage, proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis during experimental oral carcinogenesis. Oncol. Res. 17: 193–203.
Lee SH, Hwang HM, Pyo CW, Hahm DH, Choi SY (2010). E2F1-directed activation of Bcl-2 is correlated with lactoferrin-induced apoptosis in Jurkat leukemia T lymphocytes. Biometals. 23: 507–514.
Wang S, Tu J, Zhou C, Li J, Huang L, Tao L, Zhao L (2015). The effect of Lfcin-B on non-small cell lung cancer H460 cells is mediated by inhibiting VEGF expression and inducing apoptosis. Arch. Pharm Res. 38: 261–271.
Arcella A, Oliva MA, Staffieri S, Aalberti S, Grillea G, Madonna M, Bartolo M, Pavone L, Giangaspero F, Cantore G, Frati A (2015). In vitro and in vivo effect of human lactoferrin on glioblastoma growth. J. Neurosurg. 123: 1026–1035.
Kim Y, Kim MJ, Han KYS, Imm JY, Oh S, Kim SH (2009). Anticancer activity of lactoferrin isolated from caprine colostrum on human cancer cell lines. International Journal of Dairy Technology. 62(2): 277-281.
Montanari G, Zambonelli C, Grazia L, Kamesheva GK and Shigaeva MK (1996). Saccharomyces unisporaas the principle alcoholic fermentation microorganism of traditional koumiss. Journal of Dairy Research. 63: 327–331.
Watanabe FJ, Fujimoto J, Sasamoto M, Dugersuren J, Tumursuh T, Demberel S (2008). Diversity of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in Airag and Tarag, traditional fermented milk products of Mongolia. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 24: 1313-1325.
Uniacke-Lowe T, Huppertz T and Fox PF (2010). Equine milk proteins: chemistry, structure and nutritional signiﬁcance. International Dairy Journal. 20: 609–629.
Yao G, Yu J, Hou Q, Hui W, Liu W, Kwok LY , Menghe B, Sun T, Zhang H and Zhang W (2017). A Perspective Study of Koumiss Microbiome by Metagenomics Analysis Based on Single-Cell Amplification Technique. Frontiers in Microbiology. 8: 165.
Zhang W, Sun Z, Sun T, and Zhang H (2010). PCR screening and sequence analysis of iol clusters in Lactobacillus casei strains isolated from koumiss. Folia Microbiol. (Praha) 55: 603–606.
Pan DD, Zeng XQ, and Yan YT (2011). Characterisation of Lactobacillus fermentum SM-7 isolated from koumiss, a potential probiotic bacterium withcholesterol-lowering effects. J. Sci. Food Agric. 91: 512–518.
Ebringer L, Ferencík M, & Krajcovicˇ J (2008). Beneficial health effects of milk and fermented dairy products- Review. Folia Microbiologica. 53(5): 378–394.
Parvez S, Malik KA, Ah Kang S, & Kim HY (2006). Probiotics and their fermented food products are beneficial for health. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 100(6): 1171–1185.
Vasiljevic T, Shah NP (2008). Probiotics – From Metchnikoff to bioactives. International Dairy Journal. 18(7): 714–728.
Desrouillères K, Millette M, Jamshidian M, Maherani B, Fortin O, Lacroix M (2016). Cancer preventive effect of a specific probiotic fermented milk components and cell walls extracted from a biomass containing L. acidophilus CL1285, L. casei LBC80R, and L. rhamnosus CLR2 on male F344 rats treated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. Journal of Functional Foods. 26: 373–384.
van't Veer P, Dekker JM, Lamers JW, Kok FJ, Schouten EG, Brants HA, Sturmans F, Hermus RJ (1989). Consumption of Fermented Milk Products and Breast Cancer: A Case-Control Study in the Netherlands. Cancer Researc. 49: 4020-4023.
Duarte DC, Nicolau A, Teixeira JA, and Rodrigues LR (2011). The effect of bovine milk lactoferrin on human breast cancer cell lines. J. Dairy Sci. 94 :66–76.
Maehara Y, Anai H,Tamada R, Sugimachi K (1987). The ATP assay is more sensitive than the succinate dehydrogenase inhibition test for predicting cell viability. Eur. J. Cancer Clin. Oncol. 23: 273–276.
Farziyan MA, Moradian F, Rafiei A (2016). Anticancer Effect of Bovine Lactoferrin on Human Esophagus Cancer Cell Line. Res Mol Med. 4(1): 18.
Akca C, Vatan O, Yilmaz D, Huriyet H, Cinkilic N, Cavas T (2019). In vitro cytotoxic and genotoxic ef fects of donkey milk on lung cancer and normal cells lines. Czech Journal of Food Sciences. 37 (1): 29–35.