Introduction: In disasters, patients with chronic diseases, such as diabetes and chronic respiratory diseases, are considered to be a vulnerable population. This study aimed to examine the natural disaster preparedness knowledge of patients with chronic diseases in Iran with a focus on diabetic patients and those with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) admitted to Masih Daneshvari Hospital in Tehran, Iran.
Methodology: This cross-sectional survey was administered from August 2020 to April 2021. A disaster preparedness knowledge questionnaire was devised and validated, subsequently. A total of 86 eligible patients were selected using the census method and completed the questionnaire. The questionnaire included items on patients’ knowledge of disasters (n=7), personal preparedness of patients in disasters (n=8), and family and community preparedness in disasters (n=4).
Results: A total of 86 patients were included in this survey, including 44 (51.2%) males. In total, 64% (n=55), 34.9% (n=30), and 1.2% (n=1) of patients had diabetes, COPD, and both, respectively. Two-thirds of patients reported that they had no good knowledge of disaster and emergency awareness and preparedness.
Conclusion: Based on the obtained results and due to the low readiness of patients, it is necessary to make decisions to improve the patients’ readiness. Therefore, it is possible to help promote the level of knowledge and preparedness of patients with diabetes and COPD to improve the health results during and after disasters through the adoption of required strategies and comprehensive plans in different areas of public health.
- Organization WH. World health statistics 2016: monitoring health for the SDGs sustainable development goals: World Health Organization; 2016.
- Mannino DM, Buist AS. Global burden of COPD: risk factors, prevalence, and future trends. The Lancet. 2007;370(9589):765-73. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61380-4 [PMID: 17765526]
- Menezes AMB, Perez-Padilla R, Jardim JB, Muiño A, Lopez MV, Valdivia G, et al. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in five Latin American cities (the PLATINO study): a prevalence study. Lancet. 2005;366(9500):1875-81. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67632-5 [PMID: 16310554]
- Gupta D, Agarwal R, Aggarwal AN, Maturu V, Dhooria S, Prasad K, et al. Guidelines for diagnosis and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Joint ICS/NCCP (I) recommendations. Lung India. 2013;30(3):228-67. doi: 10.4103/0970-2113.116248 [PMID: 24049265]
- Blanco I, Diego I, Bueno P, Fernández E, Casas-Maldonado F, Esquinas C, et al. Geographic distribution of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease prevalence in Africa, Asia and Australasia. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2019;23(10):1100-6. doi: 10.5588/ijtld.19.0015 [PMID: 31627775]
- Varmaghani M, Dehghani M, Heidari E, Sharifi F, Moghaddam SS, Farzadfar F. Global prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: systematic review and meta-analysis. East Mediterr Health J. 2019;25(1):47-57. doi: 10.26719/emhj.18.014 [PMID: 30919925]
- Varmaghani M, Farzadfar F, Sharifi F, Rashidian A, Moin M, Moradi-Lakeh M, et al. Prevalence of asthma, COPD, and chronic bronchitis in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2016;15(2):93-104. [PMID: 27090362]
- Glovaci D, Fan W, Wong ND. Epidemiology of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2019;21(4):1-8. doi: 10.1007/s11886-019-1107-y [PMID: 30828746]
- Ryan BJ, Franklin RC, Burkle FM, Smith EC, Aitken P, Leggat PA. Determining key influences on patient ability to successfully manage noncommunicable disease after natural disaster. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2019;34(3):241-50. doi: 10.1017/S1049023X1900431X [PMID: 31079592]
- Saeedi P, Petersohn I, Salpea P, Malanda B, Karuranga S, Unwin N, et al. Global and regional diabetes prevalence estimates for 2019 and projections for 2030 and 2045: Results from the International Diabetes Federation Diabetes Atlas. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2019;157:107843. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2019.107843 [PMID: 31518657]
- Wild S, Roglic G, Green A, Sicree R, King H. Global prevalence of diabetes: estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030. Diabetes Care. 2004;27(5):1047-53. doi: 10.2337/diacare.27.5.1047 [PMID: 15111519]
- Esteghamati A, Larijani B, Aghajani MH, Ghaemi F, Kermanchi J, Shahrami A, et al. Diabetes in Iran: prospective analysis from first nationwide diabetes report of National Program for Prevention and Control of Diabetes (NPPCD-2016). Sci Rep. 2017;7(1):1-10. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-13379-z
- Allweiss P. Diabetes and disasters: recent studies and resources for preparedness. Curr Diab Rep. 2019;19(11):1-6. doi: 10.1007/s11892-019-1258-7
- Satoh J, Yokono K, Ando R, Asakura T, Hanzawa K, Ishigaki Y, et al. Diabetes care providers’ manual for disaster diabetes care. Diabetol Int. 2019;10(3):153-79. doi: 10.1007/s13340-019-00397-7 [PMID: 31275782]
- Bronfman NC, Cisternas PC, Repetto PB, Castañeda JV. Natural disaster preparedness in a multi-hazard environment: Characterizing the sociodemographic profile of those better (worse) prepared. PloS One. 2019;14(4):e0214249. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0214249 [PMID: 31017910]
- Gichomo GN. Improving Disaster Preparedness and Planning for Chronic Disease Populations; 2019.
- Lawrence WR, Lin Z, Lipton EA, Birkhead G, Primeau M, Dong G-H, et al. After the storm: Short-term and long-term health effects following superstorm sandy among the elderly. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2019;13(1):28-32. doi: 10.1017/dmp.2018.152 [PMID: 30841951]
- Cherniack EP. The impact of natural disasters on the elderly. Am J Disaster Med. 2008;3(3):133-9. [PMID: 18666509]
- Morin VM, Ahmad MM, Warnitchai P. Vulnerability to typhoon hazards in the coastal informal settlements of Metro Manila, the Philippines. Disasters. 2016;40(4):693-719. doi: 10.1111/disa.12174
- Kishimoto M, Noda M. Diabetes care: after the great east Japan earthquake. J Diabetes Investig. 2013;4(1):97-102. doi: 10.1111/jdi.12025 [PMID: 24843638]
- Chan EY, Kim J. Chronic health needs immediately after natural disasters in middle-income countries: the case of the 2008 Sichuan, China earthquake. Eur J Emerg Med. 2011;18(2):111-4. doi: 10.1097/MEJ.0b013e32833dba19 [PMID: 20679898]
- Perry RW, Lindell MK. Preparedness for emergency response: guidelines for the emergency planning process. Disasters. 2003;27(4):336-50. doi: 10.1111/j.0361-3666.2003.00237.x [PMID: 14725091]
- Miceli R, Sotgiu I, Settanni M. Disaster preparedness and perception of flood risk: A study in an alpine valley in Italy. J Environ Psychol. 2008;28(2):164-73. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvp.2007.10.006
- Thieken AH, Kreibich H, Müller M, Merz B. Coping with floods: preparedness, response and recovery of flood-affected residents in Germany in 2002. Hydrol Sci J. 2007;52(5):1016-37. doi: 10.1623/hysj.52.5.1016
- Paganini M, Borrelli F, Cattani J, Ragazzoni L, Djalali A, Carenzo L, et al. Assessment of disaster preparedness among emergency departments in Italian hospitals: a cautious warning for disaster risk reduction and management capacity. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2016;24(1):1-8. doi: 10.1186/s13049-016-0292-6 [PMID: 27526719]
- True NA, Adedoyin JD, Shofer FS, Hasty EK, Brice JH. Level of disaster preparedness in patients visiting the emergency department: results of the civilian assessment of readiness for disaster (CARD) survey. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2013;28(2):127-31. doi: 10.1017/S1049023X12001811 [PMID: 23312493]
- Güereña-Burgueño F, Jongsakul K, Smith BL, Ittiverakul M, Chiravaratanond O. Rapid assessment of health needs and medical response after the tsunami in Thailand, 2004–2005. Mil Med. 2006;171(suppl_1):8-11. doi: 10.7205/milmed.171.1s.8. [PMID: 17447613]
- Rattanakanlaya K, Sukonthasarn A, Wangsrikhun S, Chanprasit C. A survey of flood disaster preparedness among hospitals in the central region of Thailand. Australas Emerg Nurs J. 2016;19(4):191-7. doi: 10.1016/j.aenj.2016.07.003 [PMID: 27495125]
- Speziale HS, Streubert HJ, Carpenter DR. Qualitative research in nursing: Advancing the humanistic imperative: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011.
- Murakami N, Siktel HB, Lucido D, Winchester JF, Harbord NB. Disaster preparedness and awareness of patients on hemodialysis after Hurricane Sandy. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2015;10(8):1389-96. doi: 10.2215/CJN.10181014 [PMID: 26220814]
- Baruah MM, Kumar KH. Management of diabetes during natural emergencies. J Soci Health Diab. 2014;2(02):067-9. doi: 10.4103/2321-0656.130788
- Foster M, Brice JH, Shofer F, Principe S, DeWalt D, Falk R, et al. Personal disaster preparedness of dialysis patients in North Carolina. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011;6(10):2478-84. doi: 10.2215/CJN.03590411 [PMID: 21852660]
- Jebelli B, Varahram M, Soltanifard Razlighi M, Palizdar M, Ghazanchaei E. Management strategies to control the covid-19 crisis in masih daneshvari hospital, Tehran, Iran. J Mil Med. 2020;22(6):616-22. doi: 10.30491/JMM.22.6.616
- Al-Rousan TM, Rubenstein LM, Wallace RB. Preparedness for natural disasters among older US adults: a nationwide survey. Am J Public Health. 2014;104(3):506-11. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2013.301559r [PMID: 26313052]
- Daugherty JD, Eiring H, Blake S, Howard D. Disaster preparedness in home health and personal-care agencies: are they ready? Gerontology. 2012;58(4):322-30. doi: 10.1159/000336032 [PMID: 22487755]
- Sri-On J, Vanichkulbodee A, Sinsuwan N, Rojsaengroeng R, Kamsom A, Liu SW. Disaster preparedness among Thai elderly emergency department patients: a survey of patients’ perspective. BMC Emerg Med. 2019;19(1):1-7. doi: 10.1186/s12873-019-0269-7
- Beaton DE, Bombardier C, Guillemin F, Ferraz MB. Guidelines for the process of cross-cultural adaptation of self-report measures. Spine. 2000;25(24):3186-91. doi: 10.1097/00007632-200012150-00014 [PMID: 11124735]
- Koller M, Aaronson NK, Blazeby J, Bottomley A, Dewolf L, Fayers P, et al. Translation procedures for standardised quality of life questionnaires: The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) approach. Eur J Cancer. 2007;43(12):1810-20. doi: 10.1016/j.ejca.2007.05.029 [PMID: 17689070]
- Wang W-L, Lee H-L, Fetzer SJ. Challenges and strategies of instrument translation. Western Journal of Nursing Research. 2006;28(3):310-21.
- Afrasiabifar A, Yaghmaei F, Abdoli S, Abed SZ. Research tool translation and cross-cultural adaptation; 2006.
- Organization WH. Process of translation and adaptation of instruments. http://www who int/substance_abuse/research_tools/translation/en/. 2009.
- Sh P, Khaghanizade M, Ebadi A. Review of translation and cultural adaptation process of questionnaires. Edu Strat Med Scie. 2009;2(3):117-20.
- Waltz CF, Strickland OL, Lenz ER. Measurement in nursing and health research: Springer publishing company; 2010.
- Lawshe CH. A quantitative approach to content validity. Pers. Psychol. 1975;28(4):563-75. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-6570.1975.tb01393.x
- DeVon HA, Block ME, Moyle‐Wright P, Ernst DM, Hayden SJ, Lazzara DJ, et al. A psychometric toolbox for testing validity and reliability. J Nurs Scholarsh. 2007;39(2):155-64. doi: 10.1111/j.1547-5069.2007.00161.x [PMID: 17535316]
- Horn RB, Kirsch TD. Disaster Response 2.0: noncommunicable disease essential needs still unmet. Am J Public Health. 2018;108(3):S203. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2018.304604 [PMID: 30192662]
- Control CfD. Identifying vulnerable older adults and legal options for increasing their protection during all-hazards emergencies: A cross-sector guide for states and communities. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services; 2012.
- Ghazanchaei E, Mohebbi I, Nouri F, Aghazadeh-Attari J, Khorasani-Zavareh D. Non-communicable diseases in disasters: a protocol for a systematic review. J Inj Violence Res. 2021;13(1):61-67. doi: 10.5249/jivr.v13i1.1512 . [PMID: 33459280]
- Fernandez LS, Byard D, Lin C-C, Benson S, Barbera JA. Frail elderly as disaster victims: emergency management strategies. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2002;17(2):67-74. doi: 10.1017/s1049023x00000200 [PMID: 12500729]
- O'Sullivan TL. Support for families coping with stroke or dementia: special considerations for emergency management. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2009;134(3-4):197-201. doi: 10.1093/rpd/ncp076 . [PMID: 19403689]
- Ghazanchaei E, Khorasani-Zavareh D, Aghazadeh-Attari J, Mohebbi I. Establishing the status of patients with non-communicable diseases in disaster: a systematic review. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2021;1:1-8. doi: 10.1017/dmp.2020.364 . [PMID: 33583461]