Social Mental Health during COVID-19 Pandemic in Iran: A cross-sectional study among the general population of Razavi Khorasan province, Iran


Mental health

How to Cite

Dadgarmoghaddam, M., Najaf Najafi, M., Ebrahimi, A. ., Talaei, A. ., Najafnajafi, N. ., & Moodi Ghalibaf, A. (2021). Social Mental Health during COVID-19 Pandemic in Iran: A cross-sectional study among the general population of Razavi Khorasan province, Iran. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal, 23(11). Retrieved from


Background: The potential impact of the novel coronavirus pandemic on social mental health has become a great concern and the current situation can cause different mental disorders. According to the importance of mental health, we performed this study to evaluate the mental health status of the general population of Iran in Razavi Khorasan province.

Methods: The online survey was conducted and made available for the general population of Razavi Khorasan through the snowball sampling technique within a week. the demographic information, contact history with COVID-19, and physical symptoms history of COVID-19 were collected by the survey. To maintain the population's mental health status, the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21) were used. Filling the online survey by a maximum of two members of a family was considered to reduce the risk of bias.

Results: Finally, 461 responders from Razavi Khorasan province were included in this study. In total, 41.8% of responders investigated the depression symptoms, 32.1% were in anxiety mood and 34.5% had stress symptoms. The ratio of men to women was approximately 1:2. Most responders were in the of 30-40 years and the most frequent marital status was being single. Families with 3-5 members were organized the 81.5% of responders. Near one-third of the studied population was in bachelor as educational status.

Conclusion: According to our study paying attention to the general population’s mental health status is important during the COVID-19 pandemic and conducting protocols to prevent or reduce the risk of mental disorders that can be caused by the current situation.


  1. Wang C, Horby PW, Hayden FG, Gao GF. A novel coronavirus outbreak of global health concern. The Lancet. 2020;395(10223):470-3.doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30185-9
  2. Hawryluck L, Gold WL, Robinson S, Pogorski S, Galea S, Styra R, et al. SARS control and psychological effects of quarantine, Toronto, Canada. Emerging infectious diseases. 2004;10(7):1206.doi: 10.3201/eid1007.030703
  3. Organization WH. Coronavirus disease 2019 (‎ COVID-19)‎.: situation report. 2020; 88.
  4. Paules CI, Marston HD, Fauci AS. Coronavirus infections—more than just the common cold. Jama. 2020;323(8):707-8.doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.0757
  5. Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. The lancet. 2020;395(10223):497-506.doi :10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5
  6. Cao Z, Zhang Q, Lu X, Pfeiffer D, Jia Z, Song H, et al. Estimating the effective reproduction number of the 2019-nCoV in China. MedRxiv. 2020.doi: 10.1101/2020.01.27.20018952
  7. Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, Qu J, Gong F, Han Y, et al. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. The Lancet. 2020;395(10223):507-13.doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30211-7
  8. Wu Y, Xu X, Chen Z, Duan J, Hashimoto K, Yang L, et al. Nervous system involvement after infection with COVID-19 and other coronaviruses. Brain, behavior, and immunity. 2020.doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2020.03.031
  9. Zhou F, Yu T, Du R, Fan G, Liu Y, Liu Z, et al. Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study.The lancet. 2020.doi: :
  10. Horton R. Offline: 2019-nCoV—“A desperate plea”. The Lancet. 2020;395(10222):400.doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30299-3
  11. Xiang Y-T, Yang Y, Li W, Zhang L, Zhang Q, Cheung T, et al. Timely mental health care for the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak is urgently needed. The Lancet Psychiatry. 2020;7(3):228-9.doi: 10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30046-8
  12. Sim K, Chan YH, Chong PN, Chua HC, Soon SW. Psychosocial and coping responses within the community health care setting towards a national outbreak of an infectious disease. Journal of psychosomatic research. 2010;68(2):195-202.doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2009.04.004
  13. Leung G, Lam T, Ho L, Ho S, Chan B, Wong I, et al. The impact of community psychological responses on outbreak control for severe acute respiratory syndrome in Hong Kong. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health. 2003;57(11):857-63.doi: 10.1136/jech.57.11.857
  14. Dousti P, Hosseininia N, Dousti P, Dousti S. Comparison of Catastrophizing and Perceived Stress in Three Groups of COVID-19 Patients Recovered. OSF Preprints. 2021;18.
  15. Shahriarirad R, Erfani A, Ranjbar K, Bazrafshan A, Mirahmadizadeh A. The mental health impact of COVID-19 outbreak: a Nationwide Survey in Iran. International journal of mental health systems. 2021;15(1):1-3.doi: 10.1186/s13033-021-00445-3
  16. Wang Y, Shi L, Que J, Lu Q, Liu L, Lu Z, Xu Y, Liu J, Sun Y, Meng S, Yuan K, et al. The impact of quarantine on mental health status among general population in China during the COVID-19 pandemic. Molecular psychiatry. 2021;22:1-0.
  17. Asghari moghaddam MA, Saed F, Dibajnia P, Zangeneh J. A preliminery validation of the depresion, anxiety and stress scales (dass) in non-clinical sample. Daneshvarraftar. 2008;15(31).
  18. McAlonan GM, Lee AM, Cheung V, Cheung C, Tsang KW, Sham PC, et al. Immediate and sustained psychological impact of an emerging infectious disease outbreak on health care workers. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 2007;52(4):241-7.doi: 10.1177/070674370705200406
  19. Sahebi A, Asghari MJ, Salari RS. Validation of depression anxiety and stress scale (DASS-21) for an Iranian population.
  20. Wang C, Pan R, Wan X, Tan Y, Xu L, Ho CS, et al. Immediate psychological responses and associated factors during the initial stage of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic among the general population in China. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2020;17(5):1729.doi: 10.3390/ijerph17051729
  21. Ozamiz-Etxebarria N, Dosil-Santamaria M, Picaza-Gorrochategui M, Idoiaga-Mondragon N. Stress, anxiety, and depression levels in the initial stage of the COVID-19 outbreak in a population sample in the northern Spain. Cadernos de Saúde Pública. 2020;36:e00054020.doi: 10.1590/0102-311X00054020
  22. Samadarshi SCA, Sharma S, Bhatta J. An online survey of factors associated with self-perceived stress during the initial stage of the COVID-19 outbreak in Nepal. The Ethiopian Journal of Health Development (EJHD). 2020;34(2).
  23. Garcia-Priego BA, Triana-Romero A, Pinto-Galvez SM, Duran-Ramos C, Salas-Nolasco O, Reyes MM, et al. Anxiety, depression, attitudes, and internet addiction during the initial phase of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic: A cross-sectional study in Mexico. medRxiv. 2020.doi: 10.1016/j.jadr.2021.100097
  24. Alyami HS, Naser AY, Dahmash EZ, Alyami MH, Al Meanazel OT, Al-Meanazel AT, et al. Depression and anxiety during 2019 coronavirus disease pandemic in Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study. medRxiv. 2020.doi: 10.1101/2020.05.09.20096677